A Note about Sugarbush Draft Horses

I see it over and over again, and no matter how many times it's said, it's still wrong. "Sugarbush Drafts are just an Appaloosa Draft Cross". Uh.... no. The Sugarbush Draft Horse was a breed created many years ago in Ohio. While the initial cross was made using Percherons to Appaloosas, in the many generations following, the breed has been solidified into a consistent type. Saying these horses are "just" a draft cross makes as much sense as saying that AQHA horses are "just" a Thoroughbred cross, American Cream Drafts are "just" a dilute Belgian, or that Morgans are "just" a grade.

Friday, July 23, 2010

Classic Roan

Roaning is the generic term for white hairs intermingled throughout the coat of a horse.  Most people know about blue roans, strawberry roans and such, but there are many reasons for horses to show roaning.

The best known type of roaning is called a Classic Roan.  These horses tend to have evenly (or nearly) mixed white hairs through the body area, with darker heads and lower legs.  Classic roan can be seen on any base coat color.

Now, credit for the picture here.  This is an image that kept popping up in my searches for examples.  I just can't get over how lovely this horse is, and I'm not even a quarter horse fan.  His picture was used for an ad for this website.  It appears that his name is "My Final Notice".  Lovely horse.

Grey horses can go through a state that looks similar to a classic roan, but a grey horse will continue to lose pigment over time and get whiter each year.  There is also a type of roaning associated with appaloosa colors.  This is called varnish roan, and I'll go into it more with appaloosa genetics.

The other well known type of intermixed white hairs is called Rabicano.  Rabicano is best known for the "skunk tail" or "racoon tail" type markings seen with this pattern.  While classic roans have white hair intermingled all over their body, rabicanos tend to have white roaning around the tail and rib area.   Sabino can also cause a roaning type of appearance, but it is often seen with pinto like markings (although not always).

Here is an example of a blue roan horse.  This horse shows the typical lighter body color with darker head and legs.
This horse appears blue because the base coat is black.  From a distance the human eye blends the hair colors to see an overall shade that is somewhere in the middle.  Black hairs next to white hairs results in an overall grey appearance.  When you look at a roan up close, you will see something different. 
The dark spots on the horse above are called corn spots.  Corn spots are usually caused from old injuries (but not always) and the hair regrows in those areas without the intermingled white hairs, resulting in a dark spot.  Roans are most often identified when they shed their foal coat, although in some cases it's earlier and in other later.  Some roans are actually late bloomers, and do not show signs of classic roan until as late as 5 years of age.  This can make it hard positively identify them, since grey can do the same thing. 

Roaning is actually a pattern, not a base coat modifier, because roan prohibits pigment production, as opposed to modifying the pigment produced.  Previously, it was thought that classic roan was lethal in the homozygous state, with homozygous embryos being nonviable, and thus never even born.  This has since been disproven.  First in 1979 with a few Ardennais stallions (a type of draft horse) and later in quarter horses.

The problem with the early phenotype testing (testing based on outside appearance, not DNA) is that multiple types of roans were included, not just classic roans.  Frosty roans, classic roans, rabicano roans... all of these roans were bred together, and the results did not show the typical  1-2-1 dispersal expected with incomplete dominance, or the 3-1 expected with a simple dominant gene.

Let me explain that for you.  When identifying modes of inheritance by appearance of a trait you calculate the percentage of offspring produced and their appearance.  So, lets say I have 100 foals from black to chestnut breedings.  75% of those foals should be black, and 25% of those foals should be chestnut.  With DNA testing we would see that 25% were EE, 50% Ee, and 25% ee, but both the EE and Ee foals would appear "black" and thus grouped into the same category, resulting in 3 black foals to every chestnut.  This 3 to 1 ratio tells us that a gene is a simple dominant gene.

In incomplete dominant genes, you would see a 1-2-1 ratio.  As an example, if you breed a palomino to a palomino you would get 25% chestnut foals, 50% palomino foals, and 25% cremello foals.  This is making it very simplistic, as normally the results are never that perfect.  We often see things like 23%, 56%, 21%, but you can see how that is close.  The larger the group studied (1000 foals vs 100 foals) the closer you get to the ideal percentages.  Of course, the problem is the reality behind testing things like this.... what do you do with all those foals?  Because of that, we rarely have the sample sizes desired for the best testing.

Now, if you do a test like this, and you're using multiple genes with similar appearances, then your results will be all over the place!  Many scientists suspect this is what happened with the first phenotype testing for roan.  We know that rabicano and classic roan are inherited independently of each other, so this would skew the results.

Now, classic roan is a simple dominant gene, and is referred to with the symbol RN or rn (yes, that's an r and an n).  I have often seen the dominant copy also referred to as Rn.  The question of how much roaning a horse gets, well, that is determined by those enhancers and supressors we discussed yesterday.  Sabino, splash, base coat color, and other enhancing factors can cause a horse to have more white hairs, while the lack of them, or restricting base coat colors (such as EE) can cause a horse to be minimally roaned.

As a comparison, look at this minimal roan and compare it to this extreme roan

Now, like I said, roans come in all colors.  Here are a few examples:

Red Roan

Bay roan

Buckskin Roan

(and isn't he just adorable?)

Palomino Roan

Of course, I used many blue roans (classic roan on black) as my initial examples, simply because it's so easy to see.  Also, all links above lead to the horse's websites, many are breeders.  (I seriously recommend the website for the buckskin roan, some LOVELY mini horses there, in all colors.)

Now, none of the horses below are roans.  Today's test!  Can you guess what patterns/colors cause these horses to have a roan-like appearance?  It's a bit unfair, because we haven't covered a lot of these colors yet, but hopefully it's more fun then just guessing letters!


And bonus points for those who can write the genome for the horse's color (base color only is ok).


  1. wow, that's a lot of info and very interesting! All the pictures of the horses are beautiful... I have NO idea about your question! but can't wait to hear your answer!!!

  2. Now that's interesting. I've always heard what you call a red roan referred to as a strawberry roan, and the bay roan referred to as a red roan...

  3. Okay, gotta take advantage of Kate being out of town... ;o)
    1. ee varnish roan (appy)
    2. ee (or possibly E? A?) sabino
    3.EE Dun (grullo)
    4.ee rabicano?
    5.ee gray
    I've always wondered about the roan issue--I so wanted my first foal to be "roan" instead of gray, because of the loss of Paint pattern that comes with gray (his current owners love him anyway, even tho at ten he is almost pure white). This supports the inclusion of sabino in Kate's and Misty's (Maddie's dam) color pattern, as both Kate and Madie's little brother Jackson have some "roaning" in various places on their bodies. Here's Jackson:
    Notice especially the bottom half of the spot in the middle of his back. Also all the "pointy" edges. [Can you tell I like showing off my babies?]

  4. What a cutie Evensong. And I have to say you do have lovely horses, even if they do have the wrong spots. =)

    Sarah, around my parts red roans included bay and chestnut colors, and strawberry roans were a very specific shade (very light sorrel). A red roan was just a red roan, but a STRAWberry roan... now that was special stuff! Also, anything darker then red was blue... but a purple roan (most often seal bay, sometimes mahogany bay) was again special.

    I know this has always been a little bit different depending upon where one was raised (I'm a Texas girl, what can I say). Now with more understanding of colors the romantic terms can still be used (and I really like them), but so can black roan, bay roan, chestnut roan, buckskin roan, etc.

  5. Oops. On #5 I meant *EE* (and aa) gray!

  6. Oh, I'm a Texas girl too, and if I've got my geography right, I'm not too far down the road from you. :) I've always just heard strawberry for the chestnut-based roams, sorrel or not. The one mare I knew that they called a strawberry roan was a solid chestnut except for a very light roaming across her back, haunches, and shoulders; from a distance, you couldn't tell she was anything but chestnut.

    I'm really looking forward to the Appy stuff, by the way. My old instructor had a little almost-white varnish roan PoA that had two foals - one started off as a pretty little chestnut with a blanket and was nearly white like mom by the time he was weaned, and the other was (I think) a blue roan with a blanket - and having watched the little monsters grow up, I've always wondered how they ended up colored quite that way.

  7. I love that extreme roan. Never heard that term before, but love the look. And you already know I'm a sucker for red roans.

    Sarah, where are you??

  8. Sarah! You need to come and visit! Iron Ridge is in Whitesboro.

  9. Hey! Where are the answers? Inquiring minds want to know...

  10. Ok, sorry I disappeared on y'all last night. I had a date with a large polka dotted hiney! Yes, O is doing GREAT at the trainer.

    Sadly, it's 2.5 hours there, and 2.5 hours back, add in a couple of hours of chatting with the trainer and Heather, and then my own pony chores, and I was WIPED last night.

    Here are the answers to the test:

    1. Chestnut appaloosa roan
    ee ??(for a) crcr dd chch gg LP? ?? (for patn)

    2.A chestnut Sabino Clydesdale cross
    ee ??(for a) crcr dd chch gg with Sabino

    3. Grey Most likely black or seal bay base
    E? aa crcr dd chch G?
    E? At? crcr dd chch G?

    4.Chestnut Rabicano
    ee ??(for a) crcr dd chch gg with rabicano
    ee ?? crcr dd chch gg RB?

    5.Grey on a black base
    E? aa crcr dd chch G?

    And Sarah, that's so weird that we're so close! I actually grew up in Denton, and was taught those roan terms while in 4-H there! Maybe my mentor was just a bit off.

  11. Leah, only if you guys can stand a horseless and terribly out of shape visitor. :)

    Pinzgauer - 4H may be the difference. I grew up down in Lewisville, and I'm not even sure there IS 4H down there, aside from the ag classes at the high school. I didn't ever catch wind of it, anyway - or Pony Club, for that matter.

    I made the rotation through a bunch of barns out Flower Mound/Bartonville/Argyle way, though - Summertree Stables (now Bridlewood), Flower Mound Equestrian, High Meadows Arabians, and a ton of little no-name or private places - back when I was still doing lessons. I've ridden at a few places up here in Denton, but the only ones of those that had names were Cheval (Teasley/Swisher/2181, long gone now) and we did summer camps at the Selwyn School for a few years. I haven't been on a horse in nearly 4 years, though, and haven't ridden steadily in... oh, jeez. Seven, maybe?

  12. Sarah, out of shape... join the club! I don't know about Leah and Kris, but Nita (my mother) and I both complain about being out of shape on a regular basis.

    And horseless? Well!!!!!! We can change that! I have um.... 34 here that need attention, wanna come help? From babies to packers, with plenty of greenies in between. I have yet to be unable to match a person to a horse here so that they can ride at a level they are comfortable.

    I always welcome people up here to enjoy the ponies, especially those who actually know something about horses. Sunday mornings, around 8-9am we meet up and ride. We're not fancy at all (yet) but you're more then welcome. If you want to come up some other time, just get my contact info from my website (Link at top) and call/email me. I'll give you directions out, and put you on a good bomb proof horse to help you get back in shape.

    Oh, and um... did I mention that I'm always looking for people to ride with/for me? =) Easy shot up 377, not hard to find... free riding.... new horsey friends... how can you resist?


  13. Is there any difference between a red roan and a strawberry roan and, if so, what?

  14. Is there any difference between a red roan and a strawberry roan and, if so, what?

  15. Ok, sorry I disappeared on y'all last night. I had a date with a large polka dotted hiney! Yes, O is doing GREAT at the trainer.

    Sadly, it's 2.5 hours there, and 2.5 hours back, add in a couple of hours of chatting with the trainer and Heather, and then my own pony chores, and I was WIPED last night.

    Here are the answers to the test:

    1. Chestnut appaloosa roan
    ee ??(for a) crcr dd chch gg LP? ?? (for patn)

    2.A chestnut Sabino Clydesdale cross
    ee ??(for a) crcr dd chch gg with Sabino

    3. Grey Most likely black or seal bay base
    E? aa crcr dd chch G?
    E? At? crcr dd chch G?

    4.Chestnut Rabicano
    ee ??(for a) crcr dd chch gg with rabicano
    ee ?? crcr dd chch gg RB?

    5.Grey on a black base
    E? aa crcr dd chch G?

    And Sarah, that's so weird that we're so close! I actually grew up in Denton, and was taught those roan terms while in 4-H there! Maybe my mentor was just a bit off.

  16. Sarah! You need to come and visit! Iron Ridge is in Whitesboro.

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